John P. Sullivan, Robert J. Bunker, and José de Arimatéia da Cruz, “Third Generation Gangs Strategic Note No. 36: High Casualty Civil Police Raid in Rio de Janeiro’s Jacarezinho Favela Raises Human Rights Concerns.” Small Wars Journal. 25 May 2021.
On 6 May 2021, at approximately 0600 hours (6 AM), Rio de Janeiro’s civil police (Polícia Civil do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – PCERJ) entered the Jacarezinho favela (slum)to perform a raid—Operação Exceptis(Operation Exception)—against members of the Comando Vermelho (CV or Red Command). As the PCERJ entered the favela, they encountered small arms fire. A PCERJ officer was killed in the initial exchange and a sustained battle continued through the day. At least 28 persons were killed, including the police officer and 27 residents. The incident was the deadliest in Rio de Janeiro’s history and provoked widespread global criticism.